The importance of ecological management cities can't be ignored nowadays. This article will talk about the ecological awareness of governments and the importance of rethinking the development of their territories by taking into consideration the cities and the nature found there. And finally we will give some examples of space development with including the urban biodiversity living there.
Since the 70's and 80's, serious discussions about the impact of pollution are starting to emerge and a community of scientists is warning us about climate change and the ecological impact that industrialization can have on our planet and our way of living in the future. It is only since the 2000's that the subject starts to be taken seriously by the UN and especially in some countries.
In the past, no importance was given to the biodiversity that can exist in urban cities. We focused on rural areas by trying to protect a maximum of green spaces and forests or by controlling agricultural practices such as the banning of pesticides. Cities were considered to be human-only spaces and nothing more. Now that cities are growing more and more, they represent a growing percentage that can no longer be neglected. For example, in France, they constitute 20% of the territory against 80% of the territory that remains rural.
Ecological urbanism is therefore essential for the redevelopment of the territory. It is important that urban planners and scientists specialized in ecology work together to rethink the city. For currently these two departments are distinct and there is a barrier between them that needs to be broken down. It is necessary that governments and municipalities encourage more collaboration between these two communities in the construction of cities.
Considering the urban biodiversity in its architecture is to have a better functioning of the city with green spaces that give a natural view to the inhabitants. Studies have shown that having a natural view with vegetation in front of one's home significantly improves a person's psychological health and the clean air that can be breathed reduces future pollution-related illnesses. It is recognized that the well-being of societies is dependent on natural functioning.
The choice of plants is also important in the face of global warming and the problems of rising temperatures. Some plants can help to lower the temperature up to 3 to 5 degrees Celsius while others like grass are able to raise it. There are types of trees and plants in general that will move from root to root and will maintain and reproduce themselves by adapting to the environment without the need for human hands.
Many examples of green cities and green space planning exist.
Some cities, notably in Canada, create green spaces in several parts of the city and connect them with corridors so that animal and plant biodiversity can connect and circulate between the spaces. Using Canada as an example, the government has launched a national ecological corridor program, which was an initiative of the state of Quebec, which already has several corridors such as the one in . The Canadian federal state of Ottawa will also invest up to 60.6 M $ in ecological corridors to link parks and biodiversity between them. Some other cities in the world have thought of creating corridors on the roofs of buildings by greening them due to the lack of space in the city. It is important that specialists are involved in these types of projects in order to have the necessary balance and not to think only about the aesthetic aspect. The idea is not to try to influence the biodiversity of plants and animals because there is a whole ecosystem behind it that will turn on its own and find the right balance. For example, installing several beehives to promote pollination when only one is needed can compete with other pollinators and create an imbalance in the existing ecosystem.